Why does anxiety arise? It is a concept that is constantly present in an individual’s life. It is a mental and physical reaction that the individual shows in the face of a frightening or threatening situation. When it is absent or excessive in our lives, troubles begin to appear. These symptoms show different behaviours according to the individual.
Having a normal level of anxiety will be a factor that makes our lives easier. When an individual knows that he/she has an exam to take, a normal level of anxiety will lead that person to prepare for the exam. However, when the level of anxiety that will occur in the person is too high, it will greatly reduce the efficiency when studying or taking the exam.
Anxiety disorder is a condition that can be seen in people of all ages. It is more likely to be seen in individuals whose life is very stressful.
What are the Types of Anxiety?
According to DSM V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) published by the American Psychiatric Association, anxiety disorders are as follows;
Separation Anxiety Disorder
Selective Mutism (Selective Non-Speech)
Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
Generalised Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety Disorder Due to Substance-Drug Use
Anxiety Disorder Due to Another Disease
Other Specified Anxiety Disorders
Unspecified Anxiety Disorders
How is Anxiety Disorder Diagnosed?
If there is no physical problem, a psychiatrist or psychologist can be consulted. The specialist can make a diagnosis by taking information from the individual and applying tests when necessary.
Causes of Anxiety
The causes of anxiety are not yet known for certain. However, traumatic events and genetic predisposition are thought to cause anxiety disorders. When we look at the medical causes, some of the conditions that affect it are; heart diseases, diabetes, thyroid problems, respiratory problems, substance abuse or withdrawal, chronic pain and restless bowel syndrome, rare tumours that can affect the fight / flight mechanism.
Treatment of Anxiety Disorder
The most commonly preferred treatment methods for anxiety disorders are the use of antidepressants and psychotherapy. While medications provide short-term relief, they are not intended for long-term use. If necessary, the individual can continue both medication and therapy and then continue with therapy according to the condition of the person.
Effects of Anxiety on the Body
Breathing: When excessive stress occurs in the person, he/she may breathe rapidly. This can lead to hyperventilation in the person. Feelings such as dizziness and fainting may occur due to too much oxygen entering the body.
Cardiovascular System: The heart rate increases and in this case, it carries the oxygen it needs to the muscles. However, prolonged stress can cause heart disease.
Immune System: Cortisol is released during anxiety. Cortisol is also known as stress hormone. Cortisol is responsible for managing stress when a threat occurs. When secreted in sufficient amounts, it acts as a protector and helps maintain blood pressure levels and immune function. However, high levels of cortisol can lead to weight gain, sleep disturbances, psychological problems, low energy levels, hypertension and diabetes.